Vampyres of the Nyght


Vampyres of the Nyght

a look at the vampire through myth and legend.. famous the modern kin that live the Vampire LifeStyle....

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**some stories and subjects may have some sexual content**

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Vampire, by Philip Burne-Jones, 1897

Vampires are mythological or folkloric revenants who subsist by feeding
on the blood of the living. In folkloric tales, the undead vampires
often visited loved ones and caused mischief or deaths in the
neighbourhoods they inhabited when they were alive. They wore shrouds
and were often described as bloated and of ruddy or dark countenance,
markedly different from today's gaunt, pale vampire which dates from
the early Nineteenth Century. Although vampiric entities have been
recorded in most cultures, the term vampire was not popularised until
the early 18th century, after an influx of vampire superstition into
Western Europe from areas where vampire legends were frequent, such as
the Balkans and Eastern Europ although local variants were also
known by different names, such as vrykolakas in Greece and strigoi in
Romania. This increased level of vampire superstition in Europe led to
what can only be called mass hysteria and in some cases resulted in
corpses actually being staked and people being accused of vampirism.

In modern times, however, the vampire is generally held to be a
fictitious entity, although belief in similar vampiric creatures such
as the chupacabra still persists in some cultures. Early folkloric
belief in vampires has been ascribed to the ignorance of the body's
process of decomposition after death and how people in pre-industrial
societies tried to rationalise this, creating the figure of the vampire
to explain the mysteries of death. Porphyria was also linked with
legends of vampirism in 1985 and received much media exposure, but has
since been largely discredited.

The charismatic and sophisticated vampire of modern fiction was born in
1819 with the publication of The Vampyre by John Polidori; the story
was highly successful and arguably the most influential vampire work of
the early 19th century. However, it is Bram Stoker's 1897 novel
Dracula which is remembered as the quintessential vampire novel and
provided the basis of the modern vampire legend. The success of this
book spawned a distinctive vampire genre, still popular in the 21st
century, with books, films, and television shows. The vampire has since
become a dominant figure in the horror genre.


The Oxford English Dictionary dates the first appearance of the word
vampire in English from 1734, in a travelogue titled Travels of Three
English Gentlemen published in the Harleian Miscellany in 1745.
Vampires had already been discussed in German literature. After
Austria gained control of northern Serbia and Oltenia in 1718,
officials noted the local practice of exhuming bodies and "killing
vampires". These reports, prepared between 1725 and 1732, received
widespread publicity.

The English term was derived (possibly via French vampyre) from the
German Vampir, in turn thought to be derived in the early 18th century
from the Serbian вампир/vampir. The Serbian form has
parallels in virtually all Slavic languages: Bulgarian вампир (vampir),
Czech and Slovak upír, Polish wąpierz, and (perhaps East
Slavic-influenced) upiór, Russian упырь (upyr'), Belarusian упыр
(upyr), Ukrainian упирь (upir'), from Old Russian упирь (upir'). (Note
that many of these languages have also borrowed forms such as
"vampir/wampir" subsequently from the West; these are distinct from the
original local words for the creature.) The exact etymology is
unclear. Among the proposed proto-Slavic forms are *ǫpyrь and
*ǫpirь. Like its possible cognate that means "bat" (Czech netopýr,
Slovak netopier, Polish nietoperz, Russian нетопырь / netopyr' - a
species of bat), the Slavic word might contain a Proto-Indo-European
root for "to fly". An older theory is that the Slavic languages
have borrowed the word from a Turkic term for "witch" (e.g., Tatar

The first recorded use of the Old Russian form Упирь (Upir') is
commonly believed to be in a document dated 6555 (1047 AD). It is a
colophon in a manuscript of the Book of Psalms written by a priest who
transcribed the book from Glagolitic into Cyrillic for the Novgorodian
Prince Vladimir Yaroslavovich. The priest writes that his name is
"Upir' Likhyi " (Упирь Лихый), which means something like "Wicked
Vampire" or "Foul Vampire". This apparently strange name has been
cited as an example both of surviving paganism and of the use of
nicknames as personal names.

Another early use of the Old Russian word is in the anti-pagan treatise
"Word of Saint Grigoriy", dated variously to the 11th–13th centuries,
where pagan worship of upyri is reported.

Folk beliefs

The notion of vampirism has existed for millennia; cultures such as the
Mesopotamians, Hebrews, Ancient Greeks, and Romans had tales of demons
and spirits which are considered precursors to modern vampires.
However, despite the occurrence of vampire-like creatures in these
ancient civilizations, the folklore for the entity we know today as the
vampire originates almost exclusively from early 18th century
Southeastern Europe, when verbal traditions of many ethnic groups of
the region were recorded and published. In most cases, vampires are
revenants of evil beings, suicide victims, or witches, but they can
also be created by a malevolent spirit possessing a corpse or by being
bitten by a vampire. Belief in such legends became so pervasive that in
some areas it caused mass hysteria and even public executions of people
believed to be vampires.

Description and common attributes

Vampyren "The Vampire", by Edvard Munch.

It is difficult to make a single, definitive description of the
folkloric vampire, though there are several elements common to many
European legends. Vampires were usually reported as bloated in
appearance, and ruddy, purplish, or dark in colour; these
characteristics were often attributed to the recent drinking of blood.
Indeed, blood was often seen seeping from the mouth and nose when one
was seen in its shroud or coffin and its left eye was often open.
It would be clad in the linen shroud it was buried in, and its teeth,
hair, and nails may have grown somewhat, though in general fangs were
not a feature.

Other attributes varied greatly from culture to culture; some vampires,
such as those found in Transylvanian tales, were gaunt, pale, and had
long fingernails, while those from Bulgaria only had one nostril,
and Bavarian vampires slept with thumbs crossed and one eye open.
Moravian vampires only attacked while naked, and those of Albanian
folklore wore high-heeled shoes. As stories of vampires spread
throughout the globe to the Americas and elsewhere, so did the varied
and sometimes bizarre descriptions of them: Mexican vampires had a bare
skull instead of a head, Brazilian vampires had furry feet and
vampires from the Rocky Mountains only sucked blood with their noses
and from the victim's ears. Common attributes were sometimes
described, such as red hair. Some were reported to be able to
transform into bats, rats, dogs, wolves, spiders and even moths.
From these various legends, works of literature such as Bram Stoker's
Dracula, and the influences of historical bloodthirsty figures such as
Gilles de Rais, Elizabeth Bathory, and Vlad Ţepeş, the vampire
developed into the modern stereotype

Creating vampires

The causes of vampiric generation were many and varied in original
folklore. In Slavic and Chinese traditions, any corpse which was jumped
over by an animal, particularly a dog or a cat, was feared to become
one of the undead. A body with a wound which had not been treated
with boiling water was also at risk. In Russian folklore, vampires were
said to have once been witches or people who had rebelled against the
Church while they were alive.

Cultural practices often arose that were intended to prevent a recently
deceased loved one from turning into an undead revenant. Burying a
corpse upside-down was widespread, as was placing earthly objects, such
as scythes or sickles, near the grave to satisfy any demons
entering the body or to appease the dead so that it would not wish to
arise from its coffin. This method resembles the Ancient Greek practice
of placing an obolus in the corpse's mouth to pay the toll to cross the
River Styx in the underworld; it has been argued that instead, the coin
was intended to ward off any evil spirits from entering the body, and
this may have influenced later vampire folklore. This tradition
persisted in modern Greek folklore about the vrykolakas, in which a wax
cross and piece of pottery with the inscription "Jesus Christ conquers"
were placed on the corpse to prevent the body from becoming a
vampire. Other methods commonly practised in Europe included
severing the tendons at the knees or placing poppy seeds, millet, or
sand on the ground at the grave site of a presumed vampire; this was
intended to keep the vampire occupied all night by counting the fallen
grains. Similar Chinese narratives state that if a vampire-like
being came across a sack of rice, it would have to count every grain;
this is a theme encountered in myths from the Indian subcontinent as
well as in South American tales of witches and other sorts of evil or
mischievous spirits or beings.

Identifying vampires

Many elaborate rituals were used to identify a vampire. One method of
finding a vampire's grave involved leading a virgin boy through a
graveyard or church grounds on a virgin stallion — the horse would
supposedly balk at the grave in question. Generally a black horse
was required, though in Albania it should be white.Holes appearing
in the earth over a grave were taken as a sign of vampirism.

Corpses thought to be vampires were generally described as having a
healthier appearance than expected, plump and showing little or no
signs of decomposition. In some cases, when suspected graves were
opened, villagers even described the corpse as having fresh blood from
a victim all over its face. Evidence that a vampire was active in a
given locality included death of cattle, sheep, relatives or
neighbours. Folkloric vampires could also make their presence felt by
engaging in minor poltergeist-like activity, such as hurling stones on
roofs or moving household objects,and pressing on people in their

An image from Max Ernst's Une Semaine de Bonté

Apotropaics—mundane or sacred items able to ward off revenants—such as
garlic or holy water are common in vampire folklore. The items vary
from region to region; a branch of wild rose and hawthorn plant are
said to harm vampires; in Europe, sprinkling mustard seeds on the roof
of a house was said to keep them away. Other apotropaics include
sacred items, for example a crucifix, rosary, or holy water. Vampires
are said to be unable to walk on consecrated ground, such as those of
churches or temples, or cross running water. Although not
traditionally regarded as an apotropaic, mirrors have been used to ward
off vampires when placed facing outwards on a door (vampires do not
have a reflection and in some cultures, do not cast shadows, perhaps as
a manifestation of the vampire's lack of a soul).This attribute,
although not universal (the Greek vrykolakas/tympanios was capable of
both reflection and shadow), was utilized by Bram Stoker in Dracula and
has remained popular with subsequent authors and filmmakers. Some
traditions also hold that a vampire cannot enter a house unless invited
by the owner, although after the first invitation they can come and go
as they please. Though folkloric vampires were believed to be more
active at night, they were not generally considered vulnerable to

Methods of destroying suspected vampires varied, with staking the most
commonly cited method, particularly in southern Slavic cultures.
Ash was the preferred wood in Russia and the Baltic states, or
hawthorn in Serbia, with a record of oak in Silesia. Potential
vampires were most often staked though the heart, though the mouth was
targeted in Russia and northern Germany and the stomach in
northeastern Serbia. Piercing the skin of the chest was a way of
"deflating" the bloated vampire; this is similar to the act of burying
sharp objects, such as sickles, in with the corpse, so that they may
penetrate the skin if the body bloats sufficiently while transforming
into a revenant. Decapitation was the preferred method in German
and western Slavic areas, with the head buried between the feet, behind
the buttocks or away from the body. This act was seen as a way of
hastening the departure of the soul, which in some cultures, was said
to linger in the corpse. The vampire's head, body, or clothes could
also be spiked and pinned to the earth to prevent rising. Gypsies
drove steel or iron needles into a corpse's heart and placed bits of
steel in the mouth, over the eyes, ears and between the fingers at the
time of burial. They also placed hawthorn in the corpse's sock or drove
a hawthorn stake through the legs. Further measures included pouring
boiling water over the grave or complete incineration of the body. In
the Balkans a vampire could also be killed by being shot or drowned, by
repeating the funeral service, by sprinkling holy water on the body, or
by exorcism. In Romania garlic could be placed in the mouth, and as
recently as the 19th century, the precaution of shooting a bullet
through the coffin was taken. For resistant cases, the body was
dismembered and the pieces burned, mixed with water, and administered
to family members as a cure. In Saxon regions of Germany, a lemon was
placed in the mouth of suspected vampires.

Ancient beliefs
Lilith (1892), by John Collier.

Tales of supernatural beings consuming the blood or flesh of the living
have been found in nearly every culture around the world for many
centuries.Today we would associate these entities with vampires,
but in ancient times, the term vampire did not exist; blood drinking
and similar activities were attributed to demons or spirits who would
eat flesh and drink blood; even the devil was considered synonymous
with the vampire. Almost every nation has associated blood drinking
with some kind of revenant or demon, or in some cases a deity. In
India, for example, tales of vetalas, ghoul-like beings that inhabit
corpses, have been compiled in the Baital Pachisi; a prominent story in
the Kathasaritsagara tells of King Vikramāditya and his nightly quests
to capture an elusive one. Pishacha, the returned spirits of
evil-doers or those who died insane, also bear vampiric attributes.
The Ancient Indian goddess Kali, with fangs and a garland of corpses or
skulls, was also intimately linked with the drinking of blood. In
Egypt, the goddess Sekhmet drank blood.

The Persians were one of the first civilizations to have tales of
blood-drinking demons: creatures attempting to drink blood from men
were depicted on excavated pottery shards. Ancient Babylonia had
tales of the mythical Lilitu, synonymous with and giving rise to
Lilith (Hebrew לילית) and her daughters the Lilu from Hebrew
demonology. Lilitu was considered a demon and was often depicted as
subsisting on the blood of babies. However, the Jewish counterparts
were said to feast on both men and women, as well as newborns.

Ancient Greek and Roman mythology described the Empusae, Lamia,
and the striges. Over time the first two terms became general words to
describe witches and demons respectively. Empusa was the daughter of
the goddess Hecate and was described as a demonic, bronze-footed
creature. She feasted on blood by transforming into a young woman and
seduced men as they slept before drinking their blood. Lamia preyed
on young children in their beds at night, sucking their blood.Like
Lamia, the striges, feasted on children, but also preyed on young men.
They were described as having the bodies of crows or birds in general,
and were later incorporated into Roman mythology as strix, a kind of
nocturnal bird that fed on human flesh and blood.

Medieval and later European folklore

Main article: Vampire folklore by region

Le Vampire,
lithograph by R. de Moraine
Les Tribunaux secrets (1864)

Many of the myths surrounding vampires originated during the medieval
period. The 12th century English historians and chroniclers Walter Map
and William of Newburgh recorded accounts of revenants, though
records in English legends of vampiric beings after this date are
scant.These tales are similar to the later folklore widely
reported from Eastern Europe in the 18th century and were the basis of
the vampire legend that later entered Germany and England, where they
were subsequently embellished and popularised.

During the 18th century, there was a frenzy of vampire sightings in
Eastern Europe, with frequent stakings and grave diggings to identify
and kill the potential revenants; even government officials engaged in
the hunting and staking of vampires. Despite being called the Age
of Enlightenment, during which most folkloric legends were quelled, the
belief in vampires increased dramatically, resulting in a mass hysteria
throughout most of Europe. The panic began with an outbreak of
alleged vampire attacks in East Prussia in 1721 and in the Habsburg
Monarchy from 1725 to 1734, which spread to other localities. Two
famous vampire cases, the first to be officially recorded, involved the
corpses of Peter Plogojowitz and Arnold Paole from Serbia. Plogojowitz
was reported to have died at the age of 62, but allegedly returned
after his death asking his son for food. When the son refused, he was
found dead the following day. Plogojowitz supposedly returned and
attacked some neighbours who died from loss of blood. In the second
case, Paole, an ex-soldier turned farmer who allegedly was attacked by
a vampire years before, died while haying. After his death, people
began to die in the surrounding area and it was widely believed that
Paole had returned to prey on the neighbours.

The two incidents were well-documented: government officials examined
the bodies, wrote case reports, and published books throughout
Europe. The hysteria, commonly referred to as the "18th-Century
Vampire Controversy", raged for a generation. The problem was
exacerbated by rural epidemics of so-claimed vampire attacks,
undoubtedly caused by the higher amount of superstition that was
present in village communities, with locals digging up bodies and in
some cases, staking them. Although many scholars reported during this
period that vampires did not exist, and attributed reports to premature
burial or rabies, superstitious belief increased. Dom Augustine Calmet,
a well-respected French theologian and scholar, put together a
comprehensive treatise in 1746, which was ambiguous concerning the
existence of vampires. Calmet amassed reports of vampire incidents;
numerous readers, including both a critical Voltaire and supportive
demonologists, interpreted the treatise as claiming that vampires
existed. In his Philosophical Dictionary, Voltaire wrote:

These vampires were corpses, who went out of their graves at night to
suck the blood of the living, either at their throats or stomachs,
after which they returned to their cemeteries. The persons so sucked
waned, grew pale, and fell into consumption; while the sucking corpses
grew fat, got rosy, and enjoyed an excellent appetite. It was in
Poland, Hungary, Silesia, Moravia, Austria, and Lorraine, that the dead
made this good cheer.

The controversy only ceased when Empress Maria Theresa of Austria sent
her personal physician, Gerhard van Swieten, to investigate the claims
of vampiric entities. He concluded that vampires did not exist and the
Empress passed laws prohibiting the opening of graves and desecration
of bodies, sounding the end of the vampire epidemics. Despite this
condemnation, the vampire lived on in artistic works and in local

Non-European beliefs


Various regions of Africa have folkloric tales of beings with vampiric
abilities: in West Africa the Ashanti people tell of the iron-toothed
and tree-dwelling asanbosam, and the Ewe people of the adze, which
can take the form of a firefly and hunts children. The eastern Cape
region has the impundulu, which can take the form of a large taloned
bird and can summon thunder and lightning, and the Betsileo people of
Madagascar tell of the ramanga, an outlaw or living vampire who drinks
the blood and eats the nail clippings of nobles.

The Americas

The Loogaroo is an example of how a vampire belief can result from a
combination of beliefs, here a mixture of French and African Vodu or
voodoo. The term Loogaroo possibly comes from the French loup-garou
(meaning 'werewolf') and is common in the culture of Mauritius.
However, the stories of the Loogaroo are widespread through the
Caribbean Islands and Louisiana in the United States. Similar
female monsters are the Soucouyant of Trinidad, and the Tunda and
Patasola of Colombian folklore, while the Mapuche of southern Chile
have the bloodsucking snake known as the Peuchen.Aloe vera hung
backwards behind or near a door was thought to ward off vampiric beings
in South American superstition. Aztec mythology described tales of
the Cihuateteo, skeletal-faced spirits of those who died in childbirth
who stole children and entered into sexual liaisons with the living,
driving them mad.

During the late 18th and 19th centuries the belief in vampires was
widespread in parts of New England, particularly in Rhode Island and
Eastern Connecticut. There are many documented cases of families
disinterring loved ones and removing their hearts in the belief that
the deceased was a vampire who was responsible for sickness and death
in the family, although the term "vampire" was never actually used to
describe the deceased. The deadly disease tuberculosis, or
"consumption" as it was known at the time, was believed to be caused by
nightly visitations on the part of a dead family member who had died of
consumption themselves. The most famous, and most recently
recorded, case of suspected vampirism is that of nineteen-year-old
Mercy Brown, who died in Exeter, Rhode Island in 1892. Her father,
assisted by the family physician, removed her from her tomb two months
after her death and her heart was cut out and burnt to ashes.


Rooted in older folklore, the modern belief in vampires spread
throughout Asia with tales of ghoulish entities from the mainland, to
vampiric beings from the islands of Southeast Asia. India also
developed other vampiric legends. The Bhūta or Prét is the soul of a
man who died an untimely death. It wanders around animating dead bodies
at night, attacking the living much like a ghoul. In northern
India, there is the BrahmarākŞhasa, a vampire-like creature with a head
encircled by intestines and a skull from which it drank blood. Although
vampires have appeared in Japanese Cinema since the late 1950s, the
folklore behind it was western in origin. However, the Nukekubi is
a being whose head and neck detach from its body to fly about seeking
human prey at night.

Legends of female vampire-like beings who can detach parts of their
upper body also occur in the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. There
are two main vampire-like creatures in the Philippines: the Tagalog
mandurugo ("blood-sucker") and the Visayan manananggal
("self-segmenter"). The mandurugo is a variety of the aswang that takes
the form of an attractive girl by day, and develops wings and a long,
hollow, thread-like tongue by night. The tongue is used to suck up
blood from a sleeping victim. The manananggal is described as being an
older, beautiful woman capable of severing its upper torso in order to
fly into the night with huge bat-like wings and prey on unsuspecting,
sleeping pregnant women in their homes. They use an elongated
proboscis-like tongue to suck fetuses off these pregnant women. They
also prefer to eat entrails (specifically the heart and the liver) and
the phlegm of sick people.

The Malaysian Penanggalan may be either a beautiful old or young woman
who obtained her beauty through the active use of black magic or other
unnatural means, and is most commonly described in local folklores to
be dark or demonic in nature. She is able to detach her fanged head
which flies around in the night looking for blood, typically from
pregnant women. Malaysians would hang jeruju (thistles) around the
doors and windows of houses, hoping the Penanggalan would not enter for
fear of catching its intestines on the thorns. The Leyak is a
similar being from Balinese folklore. A Kuntilanak or Matianak in
Indonesia, or Pontianak or Langsuir in Malaysia, is a woman who
died during childbirth and became undead, seeking revenge and
terrorizing villages. She appeared as an attractive woman with long
black hair that covered a hole in the back of her neck, which she
sucked the blood of children with. Filling the hole with her hair would
drive her off. Corpses had their mouths filled with glass beads, eggs
under each armpit, and needles in their palms to prevent them from
becoming langsuir.

Jiang Shi (traditional Chinese: 僵屍 or 殭屍; simplified Chinese: 僵尸;
pinyin: jiāngshī; literally "stiff corpse"), sometimes called "Chinese
vampires" by Westerners, are reanimated corpses that hop around,
killing living creatures to absorb life essence (qì) from their
victims. They are said to be created when a person's soul (魄 pò) fails
to leave the deceased's body. One unusual feature of this vampire
is its greenish-white furry skin, perhaps derived from fungus or mould
growing on corpses.[87]

Modern beliefs

In modern fiction, the vampire tends to be depicted as a suave,
charismatic villain. Despite the general disbelief in vampiric
entities, occasional sightings of vampires are reported. Indeed,
vampire hunting societies still exist, although they are largely formed
for social reasons. Allegations of vampire attacks swept through
the African country of Malawi during late 2002 and early 2003, with
mobs stoning one individual to death and attacking at least four
others, including Governor Eric Chiwaya, based on the belief that the
government was colluding with vampires.

In early 1970 local press spread rumors that a vampire haunted Highgate
Cemetery in London. Amateur vampire hunters flocked in large numbers to
the cemetery. Several books have been written about the case, notably
by Sean Manchester, a local man who was among the first to suggest the
existence of the "Highgate Vampire" and who later claimed to have
exorcised and destroyed a whole nest of vampires in the area. In
January 2005, rumours circulated that an attacker had bitten a number
of people in Birmingham, England, fuelling concerns about a vampire
roaming the streets. However, local police stated that no such crime
had been reported and that the case appears to be an urban legend.

In one of the more notable cases of vampiric entities in the modern
age, the chupacabra ("goat-sucker") of Puerto Rico and Mexico is said
to be a creature that feeds upon the flesh or drinks the blood of
domesticated animals, leading some to consider it a kind of vampire.
The "chupacabra hysteria" was frequently associated with deep economic
and political crises, particularly during the mid-1990s.

In Europe, where much of the vampire folklore originates, the vampire
is considered a fictitious being, although many communities have
embraced the revenant for economic purposes. In some cases, especially
in small localities, vampire superstition is still rampant and
sightings or claims of vampire attacks occur frequently. In Romania
during February 2004, several relatives of Toma Petre feared that he
had become a vampire. They dug up his corpse, tore out his heart,
burned it, and mixed the ashes with water in order to drink it.

Vampirism also represents a relevant part of modern day's occultist
movements. The mythos of the vampire, his magickal qualities, allure,
and predatory archetype express a strong symbolism that can be used in
ritual, energy work, and magick, and can even be adopted as a spiritual
system. The vampire has been part of the occult society in Europe for
centuries and has spread into the American sub-culture as well for more
than a decade, being strongly influenced by and mixed with the neo
gothic aesthetics.

Origins of vampire beliefs

Main article: Origins of vampire beliefs‎


Belief in vampires has been described as the result of people of
pre-industrial societies attempting to explain the process of death and

People sometimes suspected vampirism when a cadaver did not look as
they thought a normal corpse should when disinterred. However, rates of
decomposition vary depending on temperature and soil composition, and
many of the signs are little known. This has led vampire hunters to
mistakenly conclude that a dead body had not decomposed at all, or,
ironically, to interpret signs of decomposition as signs of continued
life. Corpses swell as gases from decomposition accumulate in
the torso and the increased pressure forces blood to ooze from the nose
and mouth. This causes the body to look "plump", "well-fed", and
"ruddy" — changes that are all the more striking if the person was pale
or thin in life. The exuding blood gave the impression that the
corpse had recently been engaging in vampiric activity.Darkening
of the skin is also caused by decomposition. The staking of a
swollen, decomposing body could cause the body to bleed and force the
accumulated gases to escape the body. This could produce a groan-like
sound when the gases moved past the vocal cords, or a sound reminiscent
of flatulence when they passed through the anus.

After death, the skin and gums lose fluids and contract, exposing the
roots of the hair, nails, and teeth, even teeth that were concealed in
the jaw. This can produce the illusion that the hair, nails, and teeth
have grown. At a certain stage, the nails fall off and the skin peels
away, as reported in the Plogojowitz case—the dermis and nail beds
emerging underneath were interpreted as "new skin" and "new nails".

In some cases in which people reported sounds emanating from a specific
coffin, it was later dug up and fingernail marks were discovered on the
inside from the victim trying to escape. In other cases the person
would hit their heads, noses or faces and it would appear that they had
been "feeding". A problem with this theory is the question of how
people presumably buried alive managed to stay alive for any extended
period without food, water or fresh air. An alternate explanation for
noise is the bubbling of escaping gases from natural decomposition of
bodies. Another likely cause of disordered tombs is grave


Folkloric vampirism has been associated with a series of deaths due to
unidentifiable or mysterious illnesses, usually within the same family
or the same small community.Tuberculosis and the pneumonic form of
bubonic plague were associated with breakdown of lung tissue which
would cause blood to appear at the lips. Dr Juan Gómez-Alonso, a
neurologist at Xeral Hospital in Vigo, Spain, examined the possibility
of a link with rabies in the journal Neurology. The susceptibility to
garlic and light could be due to rabies-induced hypersensitivity. The
disease can also affect portions of the brain that could lead to
disturbance of normal sleep patterns (thus becoming nocturnal) and
hypersexuality. Legend once said a man was not rabid if he could look
at his own reflection (an allusion to the legend that vampires have no
reflection). Wolves and bats, which are often associated with vampires,
can be carriers of rabies. The disease can also lead to a drive to bite
others and to a bloody frothing at the mouth.


In 1985 biochemist David Dolphin proposed a link between the rare blood
disorder porphyria and vampire folklore. Noting that the condition is
treated by intravenous haem, he suggested that the consumption of large
amounts of blood may result in haem being transported somehow across
the stomach wall and into the bloodstream. Thus vampires were merely
sufferers of porphyria seeking to replace haem and alleviate their
symptoms. The theory has been rebuffed medically, as suggestions
that sufferers crave the haem in human blood or that the consumption of
blood might ease the symptoms are based on a misunderstanding of the
disease. Furthermore, Dolphin was noted to have confused fictional
bloodsucking vampires with those of folklore, many of whom were not
noted to drink blood. Similarly, a parallel is made between
sensitivity to sunlight by sufferers, yet this was associated with
fictional and not folkloric vampires. Dolphin did not publish his work
more widely. Despite being dismissed by experts, the theory gained
media attention and entered popular modern folklore.


See also: Clinical vampirism

A number of murderers have performed seemingly vampiric rituals upon
their victims. Serial killers Peter Kürten and Richard Trenton Chase
were both called "vampires" in the tabloids after they were discovered
drinking the blood of the people they murdered. Similarly, in 1932, an
unsolved murder case in Stockholm, Sweden was nicknamed the "Vampire
murder", due to the circumstances of the victim’s death. The late
16th-century Hungarian countess and mass murderer Elizabeth Báthory
became particularly infamous in later centuries' works, which depicted
her bathing in her victims' blood in order to retain beauty or
youth. A more recent case involved a UK student who stabbed his
elderly neighbour 22 times, before tearing out her heart and drinking
her blood from a saucepan in the hope of 'becoming immortal'.

Vampire lifestyle is a term for a contemporary subculture of people,
largely within the Goth subculture, who consume the blood of others as
a pastime; drawing from the rich recent history of popular culture
related to cult symbolism, horror films, the fiction of Anne Rice, and
the styles of Victorian England. Active vampirism within the
vampire subculture includes both blood-related vampirism, commonly
referred to as Sanguine Vampirism, and Psychic Vampirism, or 'feeding'
from pranic energy. Practitioners may take on a variety of 'roles',
including both "vampires" and their sources of blood or pranic

Vampire bats

Main article: Vampire bat

A vampire bat near Peru

Vampire bats have only recently become an integral part of the
traditional vampire lore. Although there are no vampire bats in
Europe, bats and owls have long been associated with the supernatural,
mainly due to their nocturnal habits.

The only three species of vampire bats are all from Latin America, and
so were not an influence on the creation of the European vampire
legends. During the 16th century the Spanish conquistadors first came
into contact with vampire bats and recognized the similarity between
the feeding habits of the bats and those of the legendary vampires. The
bats were named after the vampire rather than vice versa; the Oxford
English Dictionary records their folkloric use in English from 1734 and
the zoological not until 1774. Although the vampire bat's bite is
usually not harmful to a person, the bat has been known to actively
feed on humans and large prey such as cattle and often leave the
trademark, two-prong bite mark on its victim's skin.

Though the literary Dracula's flying form was originally described as
merely bird- or lizard-like, it was not long before bats were adapted
into vampire fiction; they were used in the 1927 stage production of
Dracula and the resulting film, in which Bela Lugosi's Dracula would
transform into a bat. The bat transformation scene would again be
used by Lon Chaney Jr. in 1943's Son of Dracula. Vampire bats are
small creatures and have never been used in the film industry; instead,
the much larger flying fox bat (which does not drink blood) is used in
bat transformation scenes.

Connections with werewolves

Main article: Werewolf

In Medieval Europe, the corpses of some people executed as werewolves
were cremated rather than buried in order to prevent them from being
resurrected as vampires. Before the end of the 19th century, the
Greeks believed that the corpses of werewolves, if not destroyed, would
return to life as vampires in the form of wolves or hyenas which
prowled battlefields, drinking the blood of dying soldiers. In the same
vein, in some rural areas of Germany, Poland and Northern France, it
was once believed that people who died in mortal sin came back to life
as blood-drinking wolves. This differs from conventional werewolves,
which are are thought of as living beings rather than undead. These
vampiric werewolves would return to their human corpse form at
daylight. They were dealt with by decapitation with a spade and
exorcism by the parish priest. The head would then be thrown into a
stream, where the weight of its sins were thought to weigh it down.
Sometimes, the same methods used to dispose of ordinary vampires would
be used. The werewolf was also linked to the vampire in East
European countries, particularly Bulgaria, Serbia and Slovakia. In
Serbia, the werewolf and vampire are known collectively as one
creature; Vulkodlak. In Hungarian and Balkan mythology, many
werewolves were said to be vampiric witches who became wolves in order
to suck the blood of men born under the full moon in order to preserve
their health. In their human form, these werewolves were said to have
pale, sunken faces, hollow eyes, swollen lips and flabby arms. The
Haitian jé-rouges (red eyes) differ from traditional European
werewolves by their habit of actively trying to spread their
lycanthropic condition to others, much like vampires.

In modern fiction

The vampire is now a fixture in popular fiction. Such fiction began
with eighteenth century poetry and continued with nineteenth century
short stories, the first and most influential of which was John
Polidori's The Vampyre (1819), featuring the vampire Lord Ruthven. Lord
Ruthven's exploits were further explored in a series of vampire plays
in which he was the anti-hero. The vampire theme continued in penny
dreadful serial publications such as Varney the Vampire (1847) and
culminated in the pre-eminent vampire novel of all time: Dracula by
Bram Stoker, published in 1897. Over time, some attributes now
regarded as integral became incorporated into the vampire's profile:
fangs and vulnerability to sunlight appeared over the course of the
19th century, with Varney the Vampire and Count Dracula both bearing
protruding teeth, and Murnau's Nosferatu (1922) fearing
daylight. The cloak appeared in stage productions of the 1820s,
with a high collar introduced by playwright Hamilton Deane to help
Dracula 'vanish' on stage. Lord Ruthven and Varney were able to be
healed by moonlight, although no account of this is known in
traditional folklore. Implied though not often explicitly
documented in folklore, immortality is one attribute which features
heavily in vampire film and literature. Much is made of the price of
eternal life, namely the incessant need for blood of former equals.


Main article: Vampire literature

The vampire or revenant first appeared in poems such as The Vampire
(1748) by Heinrich August Ossenfelder, Lenore (1773) by Gottfried
August Bürger, Die Braut von Corinth (The Bride of Corinth (1797) by
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Samuel Taylor Coleridge's unfinished
Christabel and Lord Byron's The Giaour (1813). Byron was also
credited with the first prose fiction piece concerned with vampires:
The Vampyre (1819). However this was in reality authored by Byron's
personal physician, John Polidori, who adapted an enigmatic fragmentary
tale of his illustrious patient. Byron's own dominating
personality, mediated by his lover Lady Caroline Lamb in her
unflattering roman-a-clef, Glenarvon (a Gothic fantasia based on
Byron's wild life), was used as a model for Polidori's undead
protagonist Lord Ruthven. The Vampyre was highly successful and the
most influential vampire work of the early 19th century.

Varney the Vampire was a landmark popular mid-Victorian era gothic
horror story by James Malcolm Rymer (alternatively attributed to Thomas
Preskett Prest), which first appeared from 1845 to 1847 in a series of
pamphlets generally referred to as penny dreadfuls because of their
inexpensive price and typically gruesome contents. The story was
published in book form in 1847 and runs to 868 double-columned pages.
It has a distinctly suspenseful style, using vivid imagery to describe
the horrifying exploits of Varney. Another important addition to
the genre was Sheridan Le Fanu's lesbian vampire story Carmilla (1871).
Like Varney before her, the vampire Carmilla is portrayed in a somewhat
sympathetic light as the compulsion of her condition is

No effort to depict vampires in popular fiction was as influential or
as definitive as Bram Stoker's Dracula (1897). Its portrayal of
vampirism as a disease of contagious demonic possession, with its
undertones of sex, blood and death, struck a chord in Victorian Europe
where tuberculosis and syphilis were common. The vampiric traits
described in Stoker's work merged with and dominated folkloric
tradition, eventually evolving into the modern fictional vampire.
Drawing on past works such as The Vampyre and "Carmilla", Stoker began
to research his new book in the late 1800s, reading works such as The
Land Beyond the Forest (1888) by Emily Gerard and other books about
Transylvania and vampires. A member of the Hermetic Order of the Golden
Dawn, he was keen to travel around Eastern Europe to learn about the
folkloric vampires and the occult. In London, a colleague mentioned to
him the story of Vlad Ţepeş, the "real-life Dracula", and Stoker
immediately incorporated this story into his book. The first chapter of
the book was omitted when it was published in 1897, but it was released
in 1914 as Dracula's Guest.

The latter part of the twentieth century saw the rise of multi-volume
vampire epics. The first of these was gothic romance writer Marilyn
Ross' Barnabas Collins series (1966–71), loosely based on the
contemporary American TV series Dark Shadows. It also set the trend for
seeing vampires as poetic tragic heroes rather than as the more
traditional embodiment of evil. This formula was followed in novelist
Anne Rice's highly popular and influential Vampire Chronicles

The twenty first century has brought more examples of vampire fiction,
such as Stephenie Meyer's Twilight series, J.R. Ward's Black Dagger
Brotherhood series, and other highly popular vampire books which appeal
to teenagers and young adults. Such vampiric paranormal romance novels
and allied vampiric chick-lit and vampiric occult detective stories are
a remarkably popular and ever-expanding contemporary publishing
phenomenon. L.A. Banks' The Vampire Huntress Legend Series,
Laurell K. Hamilton's erotic Anita Blake: Vampire Hunter series, and
Kim Harrison's The Hollows series, portray the vampire in a variety of
new perspectives.

Film and television

Main article: Vampire films

Count Orlock, a well-known example of vampire fiction, from the 1922 film Nosferatu

Considered one of the preeminent figures of the classic horror film,
the vampire has proven to be a rich subject for the film and gaming
industries. Dracula is a major character in more movies than any other
but Sherlock Holmes, and many early films were either based on the
novel of Dracula or closely derived from it. These included the
landmark 1922 German silent film Nosferatu, directed by F. W. Murnau
and featuring the first film portrayal of Dracula—although names and
characters were intended to mimic Dracula's, Murnau could not obtain
permission to do so from Stoker's widow, and had to alter many aspects
of the film. In addition to this film was Universal's Dracula (1931),
starring Béla Lugosi as the count in what was the first talking film to
portray Dracula. The decade saw several more vampire films, most
notably Dracula's Daughter in 1936.

The legend of the vampire was cemented in the film industry when
Dracula was reincarnated for a new generation with the celebrated
Hammer Horror series of films, starring Christopher Lee as the Count.
The successful 1958 Dracula starring Lee was followed by seven sequels.
Lee returned as Dracula in all but two of these and became well known
in the role.[133] By the 1970s, vampires in films had diversified with
works such as Count Yorga, Vampire (1970), an African Count in 1972's
Blacula, a Nosferatu-like vampire in 1979's Salem's Lot, and a remake
of Nosferatu itself, titled Nosferatu the Vampyre with Klaus Kinski the
same year. Several films featured female, often lesbian, vampire
antagonists such as Hammer Horror's The Vampire Lovers (1970) based on
Carmilla, though the plotlines still revolved around a central evil
vampire character.

The pilot for the Dan Curtis 1972 television series Kolchak: The Night
Stalker revolved around reporter Carl Kolchak hunting a vampire on the
Las Vegas strip. Later films showed more diversity in plotline, with
some focusing on the vampire-hunter such as Blade in the Marvel Comics'
Blade films and the film Buffy the Vampire Slayer. Buffy, released in
1992, foreshadowed a vampiric presence on television, with adaptation
to a long-running hit TV series of the same name and its spin-off
Angel. Still others showed the vampire as protagonist such as 1983's
The Hunger, 1994's Interview with the Vampire: The Vampire Chronicles
and its indirect sequel of sorts Queen of the Damned. Bram Stoker's
Dracula was a noteworthy 1992 remake which became the then-highest
grossing vampire film ever. This increase of interest in vampiric
plotlines led to the vampire being depicted in movies such as
Underworld and Van Helsing, the Russian Night Watch and a TV miniseries
remake of 'Salem's Lot, both from 2004. A new series from HBO, entitled
True Blood, gives a Southern take to the vampire theme. The continuing
popularity of the vampire theme has been ascribed to a combination of
two factors: the representation of sexuality — something which has
become more overt in the Internet age — and the perennial dread of


Energy vampire
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

An energy vampire or psychic vampire is a mythical being said to have
the ability to feed off the "life force" (often also called qi, prana,
energy or vitality) of other living creatures. Alternative terms for
these persons are pranic vampire, empathic vampire, energy predator
(see below), psy/psi-vamp, energy parasite, energivore or psionic


The legends and spiritual teachings of some cultures refer to people,
often given priestly attributes, who manipulate or remove (feed from)
the energy of others. The tiger-women spoken of across Asia[citation
needed] (as well as the fox-women of Japan[citation needed]) and the
Jiang Shi of China may be noted, as can the incubus and succubus of
Judaeo-Christian mythology. This concept is purported to be represented
in the myths of a number of cultures, just as blood-drinking vampires

In the oral tradition of the Hopi, a powaqa is a sorcerer who comes to
a victim pretending to help and then feeds off the victim's life force

'Modern' interpretations
Literary work on vampirism and predatory spirituality. A modern occultist view on energy vampires.
Literary work on vampirism and predatory spirituality. A modern occultist view on energy vampires.

Dion Fortune wrote of psychic parasitism in relation to vampirism as
early as 1930 (considering it a combination of psychic and
psychological pathology) in "Psychic Self-Defense". The term
"psychic vampire" first gained attention in the 1960s with the
publication of Anton LaVey's Satanic Bible. LaVey, who claimed to have
coined the term,used it to mean a spiritually or emotionally weak
person who drains vital energy from other people. Adam Parfrey likewise
attributed the term to LaVey in an introduction to The Devil's Notebook.
The term is also used by Luis Marques in his work on vampirism and
spirituality, entitled the Asetian Bible, where the definition of a
psychic vampire goes beyond his ability to drain energy, but is
portrayed as a definitive condition of the individual's soul and a
secret mark of a connection to a shared past. This polemic view of the
energy predator is based on an esoteric tradition known as Asetianism,
which relies on predatory spirituality and the extensive use of Ancient
Egyptian symbolism, whose teachings are strictly and thoroughly
maintained by the occultist Order of Aset Ka.

The theme of the psychic vampire has been a focus within modern Vampire
subculture. The way that the subculture has manipulated the image of
the psychic vampire has been investigated by researchers such as Mark
Benecke and A. Asbjorn Jon. Jon has noted that, like the
traditional psychic vampires, those of Vampyre subculture 'prey[s] upon
life-force or 'pranic' energy'. Jon also noted that the group has
been loosely linked to the Goth subculture. Unfortunately, psychic
vampires are forced to feel the emotions of those who they steal energy
from, sometimes without consciously doing it. This condition is also
called empathy.[citation needed]

In popular fiction

Energy vampires are not as common in literature, comics and movies
compared to the more traditional vampires, but the concept nonetheless
makes an appearance in a number of popular works. The 1968 Star Trek
episode Day of the Dove featured an alien life force that intended to
live off the psychic energy of anger by imprisoning Klingon and United
Federation of Planets combatants forever in violent circumstances. In
Lifeforce, a movie from 1985, most of London's population are turned
into zombies after their lifeforce has been drained from them by three
psychic vampires. The Wraith of the Stargate universe, the Vorvon from
the Buck Rogers in the 25th Century episode entitled "Space Vampire",
and the Atavus from Earth: Final Conflict feed on the "lifeforce" of

For an example in video games, see the Metroids from the video game Metroid.

In the anime and manga series Sailor Moon, the Dark Kingdom/Negaverse
collects the life energy of humans in order to make Queen Metallia (The
Negaforce) grow stronger. Also in the Sailor Moon metaseries,
characters like Queen Badiane also collect the energy of humans.

The White Court Vampires in Jim Butcher's Dresden novels are another example.

In World of Warcraft, the Nathrezim (Dreadlords) are vampyric in
nature, draining Life Energy from their victims and devouring their
souls (Dreadlord).

In the ZBS serialized audio drama "The Fourth Tower of Inverness" the Madonna Vampira is an energy vampire.

Philip K. Dick also wrote a short story about the subject in The Cookie
Lady, where a young boy is drained of his youth and energy by an old

Several of Stephen King's villains are energy or empathetic vampires:
Pennywise from It, Dandelo from The Dark Tower series, Tak from The
Regulators and Desperation, and Ardelia Lortz from the short story 'The
Library Policeman' from Four Past Midnight. The concept also appears in
Sleepwalkers, a 1992 film based on an unpublished novel by King.

L. J. Smith has a young adult fiction trilogy called Dark Visions which
deals with energy vampires (called psychic vampires in the work). In
this story, special crystals can store psychic energy. Contact with an
impure one will increase psychic powers but will have the side effect
of increasing one's life energy metabolism, causing the person to
become an energy vampire. In the story, the energy vampires may acquire
their needed energy from either a person, or one of the special

In an episode of Mortal Kombat: Conquest, the Master Cho character
takes a small amount of life force from people so he can have energy.

In an episode of Ben 10: Alien Force, a villain named Mike Morningstar
drains unsuspecting girls of their energy, turning them into zombie
slaves that follow his orders, collecting more energy to give to the
villain. Gwen, who nearly becomes a zombie slave herself, comes to her
senses and gets her energy back, prompting the other zombie girls to do
the same, reducing Mike into an aged, withered man in the process. The
Ben 10 villain Zombozo the Clown is also an energy vampire, creating a
machine called the Psyclown to drain the "positive energy" from his
audiences order to have energy for himself.

In an episode of Teen Titans, a villain named Mother Mae-Eye drains her
victims (mostly referred to by her as her "children", "sweeties" and
"little ones") of their love, which (like the energy of the Sailor Moon
anime and manga series) appears as a mist. Starfire later figures out
her plan; Mother feeds on the "sweet, nourishing affection" of her
children in order to have strength.

In the 1993 film entitled Hocus Pocus, the Sanderson Sisters used a
magic witch's potion to suck the life force from little children.

The Book of Lost Things by John Connelly has a sinister villain known
as the Crooked Man, whose strange powers and unnatural body are kept
alive in his parallel world by convincing children in our world to
betray another child, who he takes to his world and feeds on their
energy for however long they would have lived.

In the manga/anime series Descendants of Darkness, the antagonist, Muraki, is said to be an energy-vampire.

Discussion Forum

blood of the ancients

Started by Rev JP Vanir Oct 13, 2017. 0 Replies


Started by Rev JP Vanir Mar 24, 2017. 0 Replies

Sanguine Vampirism 101

Started by Rev JP Vanir Mar 24, 2017. 0 Replies

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Comment by Onyx WaterHawk on February 5, 2009 at 9:50pm
Greetings to comer to the site but no new comer to the night..Hope on getting to know the fellow readers or followers here. Be well
Comment by Duvessa on January 26, 2009 at 12:22am

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Greetings to all V^^^V
Comment by Shamanistic on January 11, 2009 at 6:25am
Thee Are Not The Only One Awake.... And Thee Are Not Alone...
Comment by Madam Wolinski on December 22, 2008 at 10:19pm

Comment by Anastasia Fitzgerald on December 21, 2008 at 7:22pm
Yes, I too love vampire myths and legends. For a Halloween party this year I dressed as Elizabeth Bathory. It was a real hit. :))
Vampire Comments
~Magickal Graphics~
Comment by ♥septembermoon♥ on November 24, 2008 at 8:08pm
ty for the invite pandpra - i think vampyress bats are cute - and vlad is family - oh to suck again - yummmmm
Comment by Lea on November 7, 2008 at 8:43am

Comment by Forevrgoddess on November 3, 2008 at 4:45pm
out with the fangs... and party like there is no morning hangovers
Comment by Lea on November 3, 2008 at 1:45pm

Thanks for the invite Pandora and Blessing of the Day ~!
Comment by cc on November 2, 2008 at 5:32pm
I love Vampires!!!! I am fan of all things htat deal with them. One of my favorite moves/book is ANN RICES Invertveiw with the Vampire, all the way back to te fn movie LOVE at first BIT another Vampire movie. I could list more. They are great creators of the night. Thanks to the old and great BRACK STROCKER who wrote the first book on the DRACULA, THE COUNT.

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